乐伴英语

初中英语九年级第十三单元知识点笔记

  春暖花开,胜利在即!中考的日期越来越近,同学们加油。英语是一个强化记忆的过程,多读多背多记,熟能生巧,加油加油!
英语学习
  【重点短语】
  1. at the bottom of the river 在河床底部
  2. be full of the rubbish 充满了垃圾
  3. throw litter into the river 把垃圾扔入河中
  4. play a part in cleaning it up 尽一份力把它清理干净
  5. land pollution 土地污染
  6. fill the air with black smoke 使空气中充满了黑烟
  7. cut down air pollution 减少空气污染
  8. make a difference 产生影响
  17. take action 采取行动
  18. turn off 关掉
  19. pay for 付费
  20. add up 累加
  21. use public transportation 使用公共交通
  22. recycle books and paper 回收书和废纸
  23. use paper napkins 使用纸巾
  24. turn off the shower 关掉喷头
  25. ride in cars 开车出行
  【重点句型】
  1.Even the bottom of the river was full of rubbish.
  即使河底都充满垃圾。
  2.Everyone in town should play a part in cleaning it up.
  城里的每个人都应当尽一份力把它清理干净。
  3.The air is badly polluted because there are too many cars on the road these days.
  空气被严重污染因为如今路上的汽车太多了。
  4.To cut down air pollution, we should take the bus or subway instead of driving.
  为了减少空气污染,我们应当乘坐公汽或地铁而不是开车。
  5. I used to be able to see stars in the sky.
  我过去能在天空中看到星星。
  6. The air has become really polluted around here. I’m getting very worried.
  这儿的空气真的已经被污染了,我非常担心。
  7. No scientific studies have shown that shark fins are good for health.
  没有科学研究说明鱼鳍对人们的健康有好处。
  词汇精讲
  1. advantage
  advantage是名词,意为“优点;好处;有利条件 ”。例如:
  This bicycle has many advantages. 这辆自行车有许多优点。
  Studying English has many advantages. 学习英语有许多好处。
  【拓展】
  disadvantage是advantage的反义词,意为“缺点;弊端;不利条件”。例如:
  When you visit France, it is a disadvantage if you cannot speak French.
  当你访问法国时,如果你不会讲法语,那可是个不利条件。
  2. instead of
  instead of是介词短语,意为“代替,而不是”,后面可以跟与前面并列成分相应的名词、代词、动词-ing形式等作为介词宾语。例如:
  SHe went to the cinema instead of going to school.
  她去了电影院而不是学校。
  【拓展】
  (1) instead作副词,意为“代替,而不是”,常用作状语。例如:
  You are tired. Let me go instead. 你累了,让我替他去吧。
  He never studies. Instead, he plays tennis all day. 他从不学习,而是整天打网球。
  (2)instead和instead of的辨析:
  instead是副词,后面不接其他的词,一般情况下可不译出,通常放在句首或句末,在句首时常用逗号隔开,表示前面的事没做,而做了后面的事。例如:
  He didn’t go to school. Instead, he went to the cinema.他没有去学校,相反他去了电影院。
  Instead of lending a hand, she laughed at us。 她不仅没有帮我们一把,反而嘲笑我们。
  3. cut off
  cut off是固定搭配,意为“切除;切掉”。例如:
  The slide cut off the valley from the rest of the world.
  山崩切断了这个山谷与外界的联系。
  【拓展】“动词 + off”构成的短语有:
  take off 起飞,脱下 put off 推迟
  turn off 关闭 get off 下车
  fall off…从……掉下来break off终止
  pay off 付清
  4. make a difference
  make a difference意为“起作用,有影响”。例如:
  The fact that we can now organize my own time makes a big difference.现在我们能自己安排时间了,这对我们有很大的作用。
  Whatever you can do can make a difference.无论你能做什么,都会带来不同。
  5. the number of
  the number of意为“……的数量”,后接可数名词复数,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
  The number of people speaking Chinese is larger than that of those speaking English.
  说汉语的人数要大于说英语的人数。
  【拓展】
  a number of 意为“许多”,后面接可数名词的复数形式,谓语动词用复数形式。number前面可以用large,great,small等修饰,构成a large number of; a small number of等。例如:
  I have a number of letters to write. 我有许多信件要写。
  A large number of students in your school are from the countryside. 你们学校许多学生来自农村。

  A small number of students in your>
  6.>  although的意思相当于though,意为“尽管,虽然”,用来引导让步状语从句。它所引导的从句不能与并列连词but; and; so等连用,但可以和yet; still等词连用。例如:
  Although he lives alone, he doesn’t feel lonely.= He lives alone, but he doesn’t feel lonely. 虽然他一个人住,但他并不感到孤独。

  There is air all around us,>  【拓展】although与though的辨析:
  (1) 用作连词,表示“虽然”,二者可以互换使用,但although比though更为正式。例如:
  Though/Although it was raining, we still went there.
  虽然下着雨,但我们还是去了那里。

  (2)>  It’s hard work; I enjoy it, though.
  工作很辛苦,可是我很喜欢。
  We all tried our best. We lost the game,though.
  我们都尽力最大努力,但我们还是输了。
  (3) 在as though(好像,仿佛),eventhough(即使,纵然)等固定短语中不能用although。例如:
  He talks as though he knew everything. 他夸夸其谈,好像无所不知。
  7. take part in
  take part in意为“参加”,常指参加群众性的活动、会议、劳动、游行等,往往指参加者持有积极的态度,起一定作用。take part in之后接名词或动名词。例如:
  He didn’t take part in the sports meeting yesterday because I was ill.
  他没有参加昨天的运动会,因为我病了。
  Everyone can take part in gardening.
  每个人都可以参加到园艺活动中来。
  【拓展】join是动词,意为“加入”。指加入某一党派、组织或社会团体,以及参军等,并成为其中一员。其后常出现club, army, team, group以及人称代词宾格等。例如:
  join the swimming club 参加游泳俱乐部
  join the army 参军 join us 加入到我们的行列
  8. afford
  afford常用作及物动词,意为“买(经受)得起……;给予,提供”,其后常接名词、代词或动词不定式作宾语,afford后还可接双宾语。
  This kind of computer is too expensive and I can't afford it这种电脑太贵了,我买不起。
  At last I can afford a watch.我终于买得起一只手表了。
  Wecould not afford so much money for a bicycle.我们出不起那么多钱买一辆自行车。
  I'll afford you a chance.我将给你提供一个机会。
  句式精讲
  1. And remember to throw rubbish in the bins and keep public places clean and beautiful for everyone.
  remember作动词,意为“记得”。与forget意思相反
  例如:
  Please remember his name. 请记得他的名字。
  【拓展】
  (1)remember to do sth.表示“记得要做某事”,事情还没有做。例如:
  Remember to turn off the light when you leave. 离开时记得关灯。
  (2)remember doing sth.表示“记得曾经做过某事”,事情已经做过了。
  例如:
  He remembered going to Shanghai with his parents when he was five years old 他记得五岁时曾经和父母去过上海。
  2. Many have heard of shark fin soup.
  hear of意为“听说,听到”,相当于hear about。 例如:
  I have never heard of him. 我从来没听人说起过他。
  【拓展】hear;hear of与hear from的辨析:
  (1)hear“听见,听说”。当“听见”讲时,强调结果,可直接带宾语或用于hear sb. / sth. do/ doing sth.意为“听见某人/某物(在)做某事”,当“听说”时,后面常接从句。
  例如:
  Can you hear a bird singing in the tree now? 你现在能听见鸟在树上唱歌吗?
  I heard that she passed the exam. 我听说她通过考试了。
  (2)hear of“听说,得知”,后面接名词或代词,指听到某人或某事的存在或消息。例如:
  Jim disappeared and nobody heard of him. Jim不知去向,没有人再听到他的消息。
  (3)hear from“收到……来信”,后面常接人作宾语。
  例如:
  Have you ever heard from your pen pal? 你是否收到过笔友的来信。
  3. It’s good for health and it doesn’t cost anything.
  cost是动词,意为“花费”。它的主语一般是事物,其后接表示金钱的名词作宾语。例如:
  The coat cost me 200 yuan. 那件外套花了我200元。
  【拓展】表示“花费”的spend、take、cost和pay的辨析:
  sb.spends + 时间或金钱+ (in) doing/on sth.
  Ittakes sb. some time to do sth.(真正主语)
  sb.pays + 金钱+ for sth.
  sth.costs sb. + 金钱
  例如:
  I spent 3 hours (in) doing /on my homework yesterday. 昨天我花了三个小时做作业。
  It took me four hours to go to Wuhan by bus.乘公共汽车去武汉花了我四个小时。
  I paid six yuan for the pen. 我花了六元钱买这支笔。
  My English book cost me five yuan.我的英语书花了我五元钱。
  4. What about waste pollution?
  What about意为“……怎么样?”,可用来询问有关情况、提出建议或征求意见等。about是介词,后面接名词、代词或动名词,
  即:
  what about + sb./sth. (可接表示人或物的名词及代词)
  what about + doing sth.
  例如:
  What about sitting in the garden? 在花园里坐坐怎么样?
  I’m going to the park. What about you? 我要去公园,你呢?
  What about your exam last week, Tom? Tom,你上周考试怎么样?
  【拓展】
  What about…?与How about通常可以互换,后接名词、代词或动名词,但不能接动词不定式或动词原形。
  5. They have even asked governments to develop laws to stop the sale of shark fins.
  ask sb. to do sth.为固定结构,意为“要求某人做某事”,其否定形式为ask sb. not to do sth.,意为“要求某人别做某事”。例如:
  He asks Tom to stay with him.
  他要求汤姆跟他一起留下。
  Miss Zhang asks Jack not to come late again.
  张老师要求杰克不要再迟到了。
  【拓展】ask的常见搭配:
  (1) 与介词 for 连用,有“要求得到”的意思。例如:
  Mary asks her father for money.
  玛丽向她父亲要钱。
  (2) 与about 连用,表示询问或打听关于某事的情况。例如:
  Uncle Hill asked about you the other day.
  前些日子希尔大叔问起过你。


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